ตัวอย่างบทคัดย่อโครงงานที่ได้รับรางวัลจากการประกวดในงาน Intel ISEF 2006

โครงงาน ISEF 2006       
ตัวอย่างบทคัดย่อโครงงานที่ได้รับรางวัลจากการประกวดในงาน Intel ISEF 2006 ประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา

สาขาวิทยาการคอมพิวเตอร์
“Deyabu” Reading and Writing Interface for the Blind
โดย Maria Estela Godinez
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 1 ในสาขาวิทยาการคอมพิวเตอร์  Best of Category Award  และรางวัลที่ 3 จาก IEEE Computer Society

The lack of computers adapted for independent use by the blind limits the integration of these people in a highly modernized society. To address this situation, the main goal in “Deyabu” is the elaboration of a reading and writing interface between the blind and the computer for word processing.
  Designed in VISUAL BASIC, the word processor is controlled by the representation of the Braille character in the form of six bits, to be the base in the design of the algorithm.  The writing “keyboard” is the glove for the left hand that operates with four buttons switches situated in the index, middle, ring and pinky fingers. To use this glove one activates the buttons each finger with the thumb to activate proceeding through a series of characters associated with of these and the deactivate, the last character that perceived by touching touch or audio is the one that is added in the word processor. The reading is effected by a glove for the right hand that receives signals from the parallel port that activate mini-motors of vibration located in each one of three phalanxes of the index and middle fingers, thereby generating the Braille character, is also reinforce with synthetic voice audio of the computer.
The blind can independently utilize “Deyabu” for the process of learning Braille code or program reading and writing computer files extending their knowledge and developing in the modern environment in which they should live.

สาขาวิศวกรรมศาสตร์
Optimizing Ethanol Production Efficiency
โดย Jessica Lynn Laviolette
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 1 ในสาขาวิศวกรรมศาสตร์  และรางวัลพิเศษจาก Vacuum Technology Division of the American Vacuum Society
The purpose of this experiment is to increase both the rate of ethanol production and the longevity of the ethanol production process. By doing this, the overall efficiency of the process increases and makes ethanol a more viable renewable fuel source.
To begin experimenting and collecting data, a fermenting chamber was built that could withstand vacuum and high pressure. A membrane column was built into the chamber so that its contents could be evacuated of all atmospheric gases, and has a constant supply of Clintose solution void of atmospheric gases fed to it at a rate regulated by a metering pump. Samples were then taken at set intervals and sent to a private certified laboratory for analysis and verification of contents. The results from the lab have allowed for further analysis of my process. From this data, the rate of ethanol production, the longevity of the process, and the concentration of ethanol could be determined. The focus of this year's project is to increase the rate of ethanol production and the longevity of the process, while last year, the focus was to increase the concentration of ethanol.
After speaking with the lab, it was clear to me that the concentration of ethanol, as long as it is above 9%, makes it a viable process for commercial production--the increase of production rate and the longevity of the process is the culminating effort of this year's research.

Cornboard
โดย Philip Schmidt
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 3 ในสาขาวิศวกรรมศาสตร์  รางวัลพิเศษจาก National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance/The Lemelson Foundation  และรางวัลพิเศษจากบริษัท United Technologies Corporation
 This project examines fibreboard composed of corn stalk residue and manufactured particleboard to determine whether the fibreboard has comparable physical properties.
 To test the corn fibreboard, or Cornboard, trials were completed side by side with particleboard. These tests include abrasion, machining, water resistance, strength, and flammability. Cornboard was shown to share similar machining and abrasion properties as particleboard.
 In the water trials, samples were submerged for a specified length of time, the samples were then removed and their weights taken to establish the amount of water absorption. In the case of particleboard, it had absorbed 17.7 grams of water, or 42% of its own mass in water after two hours of submersion. After two hours had elapsed, Cornboard had only absorbed 10.3 grams of water, which is 32% of its own mass in water.
 For strength and flame tests, samples were suspended over a dial indicator for the former, or a tea light for the latter. With strength tests a consistent weight was suspended over the center of the sample, and then the deflection was measured. With Cornboard, deflection was 20.3 thousands of an inch between three trials, particleboard ignited after 4 minutes; Cornboard did not ignite after an hour of exposure to the flame.
 Conclusions that can be drawn are this: cost efficient, environmentally friendly fibreboard can be constructed from corn residue that is comparable in all aspects to production particleboard.

สาขาวิทยาศาสตร์สิ่งแวดล้อม
Bioelectromagnetism II: Optimization of conditions for sustainable current and power output in a microbial generator using Magnetospirillum MS-1
โดย Kartik Madiraju
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 1 ในสาขาวิทยาศาสตร์สิ่งแวดล้อม
 The need for alternative energy sources has led to the discovery of various renewable bio-resources. The hypothesis is that under optimal growth conditions and cell concentration, magnetic bacteria (Magnetospirillum) can be exploited as an energy source in a scale-up generator in order to produce a sustained current and power.
 The project’s focus was to measure current and power generation using magnetic bacteria in microbial generators, to determine the cell concentration that yields the highest electricity output, to conduct growth curve analyses on Magnetospirillum and to use this information to build a scale-up generator.
 The optimal cell concentration of Magnetospirillum for electricity production was determined by diluting a stock culture. The current and power generation was derived from voltage measured at different resistances. The growth curve was conducted at 21 and 30 C by plotting Colony Forming Units and Optical Density over time. The scale-up generator was built using two concentric copper cylinders as electrodes, with 20 ml volume between them.
 Current and power were sustained at 25 microamps and 5.5 microwatts, respectively, beyond 48 hours at a resistance of 10kohms. At higher resistances, the current and power were not sustainable. The optimum cell concentration was 3 to 6 x 10^7 cells/ml for high, sustained voltage production. The growth of Magnetospirillum at 21 and 30 C was comparable.
 Underwater power plants employing magnetic bacteria could be built in the future. This novel invention has the potential for use in nanotechnology as micro power generators and as an alternative energy source.

สาขาฟิสิกส์
Development of an Inexpensive Raman System and a Littrow Spectrograph
โดย Mary Masterman
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 1 ในสาขาฟิสิกส์  รางวัลที่ 1 จาก American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Physical Society  รางวัลที่ 1 จาก United States Air Force  รางวัลพิเศษจาก SPIE-

The International Society for Optical Engineering  และทุนการศึกษาจาก Oregon State University
 Previously a low-resolution, classical spectrograph with a resolution of about 700 and a spectral range of about 200 nm was constructed.
 For vibrational spectroscopy, a Raman system was built for the above spectrograph. It used a green 532 nm laser to stimulate Stokes scattering in samples. The laser beam was reflected off a dichroic mirror at an angle of 90. A microscope objective then focused the laser beam onto the sample and collimated the returning light. Light of the laser wavelength was filtered out by an interference filter which reduced the laser signal by approximately 10^5. A 50 mm f.1. lens then focused the waveshifted light on the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Measured wavenumbers correlated well to those in published spectra. Difficulties included false spectral lines created by the multimode laser and fluorescence in many samples.
 A Littrow spectrograph was then constructed. A medium-format 200 mm lens was used as a combined collimation and camera lens. A body, utilizing a diagonal mirror, connected the lens with the camera. The modular design facilitated interchanging of the lens, camera, and grating holder with different models. An adjustable slit was created, with light entering through a standard SCT-thread adapter. The spectrograph could be mounted directly to the Raman head or used in other applications, including astronomy. The F/4.8 spectrograph had a resolution of 6650 and a spectral range of 58 nm with a 1200 l/mm grating. The spectrograph was tested with a consumer DSLR camera as well as a cooled CCD camera.
 
สาขาคณิตศาสตร์
A Fully Combinatorial Proof of the Chan-Robbins-Yuen Theorem
โดย Daniel Abraham Litt
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 2 ในสาขาคณิตศาสตร์  และรางวัลที่ 2 จาก American Mathematical Society
The Chan-Robbins-Yuen Theorem was conjectured in 1999 to aid in the study of dissections of the complete flow polytope. Though a proof has been given using complex methods, no proof using elementary methods—no fully combinatorial proof—was known. We provide such a proof, as well as several related results.
Let M be the set of n x n matrices with the following properties:
1) All elements are nonnegative integers.
2) All elements above the superdiagonal equal zero.
3) The sum of the elements in the i-th row and the sum of the elements in the i-th column each equal the i-th triangular number.
The Chan-Robbins-Yuen Theorem states that IMI is the product of the first n Catalan numbers and relates to the dissections of the complete flow polytope into simplices. While providing the first known fully combinatorial proof of this theorem, we also derive a useful identity for the product of Catalan numbers, as well as discover an entire class of combinatorial problems with several interesting properties for future study.
Proving the Chan-Robbins-Yuen Theorem by elementary methods is useful both because the work is insightful, elegant, and new, and because some of its results have the potential to drive future research.

สาขาเคมี
Grass as Fuel
 โดย Jeff Kevin Bean
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 3 ในสาขาเคมี  และรางวัลที่ 4 จาก American Chemical Society

Each year millions of tons of grass clippings end up in landfills. My experiment was to measure the energy that could be extracted from this biomass resource. Two varieties of grass were grown to provide our biomass. The varieties chosen were types common in the area I live.
A calorimeter was not accessible so one was constructed. A design was drawn in which an insulated outer box held a specific amount of water. Inside the water was a combustion chamber made from an electrical heating coil inside a small paint can. The coil was designed to ignite and hold the burning grass. A current flowing through the coil triggered the combustion. A stirring rod was made with a small fan and a wooden dowel. This helped the water to heat uniformly. The entire system was carefully insulated from the environment.
When running the experiment a temperature probe was inserted in the system and connected to graphing software on a computer. The initial and final temperatures were used in the equation Q = mcAt. This gave the total system energy increase in joules. The control run energy was subtracted from this value, and the new value was then divided by the mass of grass. From this data, a value in kJ/g was obtained.
It was found that tall fescue grass releases 12.9 kJ/g of energy and Kentucky blue grass releases 10.6 kJ/g.  Estimating an average lawn size and number mowing about 4000 kJ per lawn could be extracted per year.

สาขาวิทยาศาสตร์พืช
Production of Interleukin-13 (IL-13) in Transgenic Plants for Immunotherapy of Type 1 Diabetes
โดย David Wang 
**โครงงานนี้ได้รับรางวัลที่ 1 ในสาขาวิทยาศาสตร์พืช  และรางวัล Honorable Mention Award จาก Endocrine Society

Type I diabetes (T1D) is a chronic, life threatening, autoimmune disease. Currently there is no effective therapy for this disease. Accumulated evidence suggests that T lymphocytes including T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) play a crucial role in T1D development. The disease is primarily mediated by Th1 lymphocytes that synthesize inflammatory cytokine interferon ? (INF-?), whereas the Th2 cells, which produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, have a beneficial, protective role. Thus, induction of selective deviation (skewing) of harmful Th1 responses towards a protective Th2 phenotype using Th2 cytokines such as IL-13 represents the most promising antigen-specific therapeutic approach. The objective of this study is to produce large amounts of IL-13 in transgenic plants and test if the plant-derived cytokines can be used for oral administration to treat T1D. The human IL-13 gene was cloned and fused with the bacterial CTB gene encoding the mucosal carrier CTB protein that will facilitate effective delivery of the CTB-IL-13 recombinant protein to the gut mucosal cells. CTB-IL-13 and IL-13 were cloned into a plant transformation vector under the control of a constitutive expression promoter. Low-nicotine tobacco was used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of the transgenes in the transgenic plants.  The expression of IL-13 and CTB-IL-13 in the transgenic plants was demonstrated by northern blot hybridization and western blot analysis. The availability of transgenic plants producing IL-13 and CTB-IL-13 recombinant proteins provides a solid foundation for the development of a plant-based, safe, cost-effective, oral therapy for treatment of T1D.

**หมายเหตุ ในปี 2006 ยังไม่มีการแยกจัดประกวดในสาขาพลังงานและวิศวกรรมการขนส่ง